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LED Phosphors / Luminophors
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LED
White light can be made different ways - by mixing reds, greens, and blues, by using an ultraviolet LED to stimulate a white phosphor (the same stuff that's inside a fluorescent bulb), or by using a blue-emitting diode that excites a yellow-emitting phosphor embedded in the epoxy dome. The combination of blue and yellow makes a white-emitting LED. Combine a white phosphor LED with a few amber ones, and you can create a range of different whites - from the romantic glow of a candle flame to the hot, bright light of the sun.
   Most "white" LEDs in production today use a 450nm 470nm blue GaN (gallium nitride) LED covered by a yellowish phosphor coating usually made of cerium doped yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG:Ce) crystals which have been powdered and bound in a type of viscous adhesive. The LED chip emits blue light, part of which is converted to yellow by the YAG:Ce. The single crystal form of YAG:Ce is actually considered a scintillator rather than a phosphor. Since yellow light stimulates the red and green receptors of the eye, the resulting mix of blue and yellow light gives the appearance of white.
   White LEDs can also be made by coating near ultraviolet (NUV) emitting LEDs with a mixture of high efficiency europium based red and blue emitting phosphors plus green emitting copper and aluminium doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu,Al).

Technical data:

Phosphor LD535
Phosphor LD540
Phosphor spectrum
Phosphor spectrum
Phosphor LD560
Phosphor LD585
Phosphor spectrum
Phosphor spectrum

Emission colour
Phosphor type
* Average particle size, mkm
Chemical composition
Excitation peak, nm Emission peak, nm
GREEN
LD535
< 6
SrGa2S4:Eu
200 - 500 (band) 535±5 (green)
GREEN
LD540
< 6
Y3Al5O12:Ce
455±5 540±5 (green)
YELLOW
LD560
< 6
(Y,Gd)3Al5O12:Ce
470±5 560±5 (yellow)
ORANGE
LD585
< 6
Gd3Al5O12:Ce
470±5 585±5 (orange)

* estimated by Micron Photo Sizer SKC-2000S

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